Wild tulips under Russian bombs. The destruction of the Opuk nature reserve

Opuk nature reserve

Vladyslav MIROSHNYCHENKO, for BSNews

From the first days of the occupation of Crimea, the Russian Federation has been systematically pursuing its main goal – total militarization of the peninsula. There is no doubt that it is the value of Ukrainian peninsula from the geopolitical and strategic points of view that have been the main "engine" of attempts to subjugate Crimea to the political goals of the Russian Federation since the collapse of the USSR. It is through the prism of a militarization of Crimea that decisions on other issues of lesser importance to the occupiers are made: economic and social development, human rights, etc. The development and conservation of the nature reserve fund is not an exception.

According to the expert on international security of the “Center for the Study of Conversion, Army, Disarmament” Igor Fedik: “Despite the fact that, unlike the Donbass, there is no active fighting on the peninsula - the activities of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation cause no less damage. The activities of the ground forces and air forces, especially their military trainings and maneuvers, pollute the soil and groundwater of the peninsula with heavy metals, as well as fuel, lubricants and chemicals. Military sites and military bases are located, in particular, on the territory of nature reserves and parks, which leads to the destruction of landscapes, flora and fauna”[1].

In 2015, the Joint Stock Company “Russian Institute for Urban Planning and Investment Development “Giprogor” developed the “Scheme of Territorial Planning of the Republic of Crimea”. In the second volume (book 6) of the scheme, which is completely devoted to environmental activities, the following sentence is met twice: “Based on the interests of the Russian Federation in the field of national defense and security, borders of specially protected nature territories can be adjusted”[2]. According to the experts of human rights organization “Ecology Human Right”, the purpose of the elaboration of such an analytical document was to identify aspects that could make specially protected nature territories of Crimea an obstacle to the implementation of Russian policy on the peninsula, especially in the military sphere[3]. There is a real threat of expansion of military infrastructure on the territory of the Crimean coastal aquatic complexes. Among others, these complexes include such valuable objects of the nature reserve fund as capes Kazantip, Karadag and Opuk[4]. The Russians already had experience in deploying military bases in the specially protected nature territories in Soviet times. Such territories (in particular, nature reserves) have special security status with restricted access, which allows them to hide military objects on their territory more effectively[5].

This is completely in line with the specific logic of occupiers, for whom the issue of the Crimean nature reserve fund is not a priority. It should be emphasized that the truthfulness of the conclusions of the Ukrainian ecologists on the purpose of developing a scheme of territorial planning of the Crimea and the plans of Russians regarding the Crimean nature reserve fund, was confirmed during the first years of occupation. One of the most striking examples of the impact of the total militarization of the peninsula on the Crimean nature reserve fund is the situation with the Opuk nature reserve, where in 2016 Kerch journalists noticed cans and empty dry-pack boxes labeled “Army of Russia”[6].

Opuk Nature Reserve

Opuk nature reserve was established in 1998 in accordance with the Decree of the President of Ukraine of May 12, 1998 № 459/98[7]. It`s main goal is to preserve the biological and landscape diversity of the Opuk array and the Black Sea coastal zone, which are of great natural and historical value. The reserve is located on the southern coast of the Kerch Peninsula and covers an area of ​​1592.3 hectares, including 62 hectares of the Black Sea water area with Cliff-ship islands in its borders. Its core forms Opuk mountain[8]. It is administratively located in the Leninsky district of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

Opuk nature reserve

The reserve is included to the List of Wetlands of International Importance (the Ramsar List). Ukraine, as a signatory to the Ramsar Convention, is obliged to identify wetlands of great natural, economic and socio-cultural importance in its territory. Such land shall be subject to the provisions of the Convention for the Protection of Wetlands, in particular: promoting the protection of wetlands and the rational use of wetlands; promoting the conservation of wetlands and waterfowl through the establishment of natural reserves on wetlands and ensuring proper monitoring of them; compensation for the loss of wetland resources, creation of additional nature reserves etc[9].

Following the illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia, it is impossible to comply with provisions of the Convention regarding the Crimean natural reserves. As the annexation of the Crimea is condemned and not recognized by the international community, it is also impossible to carry out monitoring, control and restoration activities on the territory of the reserves, which will have a significant destructive impact in the future.

The inclusion of the Opuk nature reserve to the Ramsar List has greatly facilitated cooperation with international organizations and other countries in the framework of monitoring programs, protection of plants and animals with internationally protected status or endangered species. For example, the reserve participated in the projects of the Darwin Initiative Foundation (UK), the Bram Laboratory in Symferopol (“National Cetacean Conservation and Participatory Monitoring Network”), with the Ukrainian Society for the Protection of Birds in partnership with BirdLife International in Ukraine; and the Ukrainian-French project “Birds of the Palearctic - 2004”[10]. Unfortunately, the continuation of such cooperation under the occupation is not even discussed.

Militarization of the Opuk Nature Reserve

One of the biggest problems of the Opuk nature reserve is that 580 hectares out of the ​​total 1592.3 hectares of the reserve’s area, is occupied by a military training area of the 810th Russian Black Sea Fleet Marine Brigade with a deployment in the Cossack Bay in Sevastopol. The military ground has been used extensively for military training since the Soviet era and until the creation of the Opuk nature reserve in 1998 and the granting to Cape Opuk a special protected status in 2001, which significantly reduced the negative impact on the ecology of the Kerch Peninsula[11]. In addition, 3 kilometers to the west from the cape are located a training area of Air-Defense Forces of Ukraine, which after annexation is used by Russians, and facilities of the 31st Russian Black Sea Fleet Research Center (“Opuk” military range), which occupies 880 hectares of land.

Coastline of the “Opuk” military training ground (red)

On the southern slope of Opuk mount is situated a measuring post of the Missile and Artillery Range of the 31st Research Center of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia.

Measurement post of the Missile and Artillery Site of the 31st Research Center of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia.

In 2011, the issue about the transfer of this territory to the Opuk nature reserve was raised in 2011. The problem was considered by the Subcommittee on the Functioning of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia and its stay on Ukrainian territory[12]. However, the desired progress on this issue could not be achieved at the time, mainly due to the reluctance of the Russian Federation to reduce the number of its own military facilities on the peninsula.

Moreover, Opuk military range also includes a sea area.

Sea area of the “Opuk” military range.

It can be noticed that a large part of the Opuk nature reserve, including the unique Koyashske spit and part of Opuk cape, are covered by the sea area of ​​the “Opuk” military range. A state monument with a status of regional significance “Cliff-ship islands”, which is also located in the waters of the military training ground 4 km from Cape Opuk, is also endangered by military exercises. The conduct of military exercises of the Black Sea Fleet warships, including firing naval artillery and missiles launching, carries the immediate danger for preserving this unique monument, which has already been damaged as a result of military exercises during the Soviet era.

Cliff-ship islands

Cliff-ship islands on the map

According to the Director of the Department of the Ministry of Ecology of Ukraine, Lesia Karnaukh, there was an informal agreement by 2014 that no military maneuvers and trainings would take place on the territory of the Opuk nature reserve[13]. Despite this, there have been regular reports of military maneuvers and training since 2014, including missile launches, artillery fire and use of aviation on the territory of the Opuk nature reserve and its adjacent territory. Representatives of the Ministry of Ecology of Ukraine emphasized, that since 2014 Opuk nature reserve is actually being destroyed under the influence of military exercises[14].  

Uzunlar Array

The devastating impact of total militarization of the peninsula has major consequences for valuable natural objects near Opuk cape, such as: Koncheckska mountain, Uzunlar array and Uzunlar lake.
Koncheckska mountain, where aviation trainings of the Russian Black Sea Fleet are conducted. Source: BlackSea news

The lake is part of the Uzunlar wilderness feather grass array, which extends 5 km along the Black Sea coastline to the west. This array is unique thanks to its well-preserved steppe communities where tulips and other rare ephemeroids-geophytes form the spring aspect[15]. Of great value are the wild tulips of Schrenk, which are the ancestors of most modern tulips, as well as the Bieberstein tulip[16]. Shrenko's tulip is included to the Red Book not only in Ukraine, but also in the occupying state, which, however, does not stop Russian Federation from destroying Shrenko's tulip under the tracks of military vehicles.

The largest number of these tulips is located on the territory of the Opuk nature reserve and its outskirt. The largest field of them is located west of Opuk cape, between the Koyashske and Uzunlar lakes.

Field of tulips (red)

In a unique place where wild tulips grow, there are clearly visible signs of the deployment of military units, probably during military exercises at the “Opuk” military training range.

Field of tulips

Trenches in the wild tulips growth area, including red-book wild tulips (red)

Opuk mountain and Uzunlar lake are a breeding and wintering ground for many species of rare and endangered birds: cormorant long-nosed, agar (red duck), balaban (falcon), peregrine falcon, steppe boryviter, crane steppe, bustard, sea buckthorn and others[17].

Due to the above listed features, the territory of the Uzunlar array, in accordance with the project of the organization of the territory of the Opuk nature reserve (1999), was envisaged for the enlargement of the territory of the Opuk nature reserve[18]. In general, the area of ​​the protection zone was 4 611 hectares of land and 53 46 hectares of the sea area and included most of the territory of the military range "Opuk" and the military training area of the 810th Russian Black Sea Fleet Marine Brigade. The project of the organization of the territory of the Opuk nature reserve and protection of its natural complexes (2011) stipulated development of the project of enlargement of the territory of the reserve at the expense of the lands of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine and the Russian Federation (sites used by the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Federation) during 2015-2016. The cost of the project was estimated around 200,000 UAH. However, in view of the illegal annexation of the peninsula by the Russian Federation, the territory of the reserve has not been enlarged.

The protected area of the Opuk nature reserve (Territorial Organization Project, 1999)

Military exercises on the territory of the Opuk nature reserve

Since 2014, Russian propagandist media regularly reports cases of illegal Russian military exercises on the territory of the Opuk nature reserve and territory reserved for its enlargement. In early 2019, a report on the military exercises of the occupiers in the Crimea was filmed by a journalist group of the Russian state TV channel “Zvezda”. The plot, among other things, included footage of military exercises at the “Opuk” military range in the close proximity to the Opuk nature reserve[19].

Military exercises of Russian military personnel on the military range "Opuk"

The official messages of the occupiers, propaganda TV channels of the Russian Federation and information of mass media about military exercises on the territory of the peninsula indicate that the coastline of the Opuk nature reserve and the territory reserved for its enlargement are regularly used for military maneuvers. This indicates a resumption of activity at the military training ground of the 810th Russian Black Sea Fleet Marine Brigade.

International volunteer community “Infornapalm” reported about military exercises at this training area in 2015. The materials, particularly, identified the personnel of this brigade[20].


Soldiers of the 810th Russian Black Sea Fleet Marine Brigade

Military exercise of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia on the range "Opuk"

In September 2016, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu took part in the final stage of the strategic command-and-staff exercise “Caucasus-2016” that took place on the territory of the Opuk nature reserve. On the video of military training, published on the Youtube - channel of the Ministry of Defense of Russia, Opuk cape is clearly visible on the background[21].

Opuk cape 

Strategic command-and-staff exercise “Caucasus-2016”, firing from the Bastion missile system. Source: https: //www.youtube.com/watch? Time_continue = 225 & v = _dF0Db8UWZE & feature = emb_title  

The image above clearly shows how during the “Caucasus-2016” military exercises, firing from the Bastion missile system takes place. Perhaps, shooting took place on a stretch of coast between the Koyashske and Uzunlar lakes. This territory does not officially belong to the territory of the military range “Opuk”, which indicates the unauthorized use of adjacent territory for military exercises by Russian military. In this regard, it is likely that part of the adjacent territory of the Opuk nature reserve, which does not belong to a military training ground, may be used by the occupiers for military exercises as well.

Strategic command-and-staff exercise “Caucasus-2016” Source: https://www.gazeta.ru/army/photo/ucheniya_kavkaz-2016_v_krymu.shtml

Strategic command-and-staff exercise “Caucasus-2016” Source: https://www.gazeta.ru/army/photo/ucheniya_kavkaz-2016_v_krymu.shtml

Strategic command-and-staff exercise “Caucasus-2016” Source: https://www.gazeta.ru/army/photo/ucheniya_kavkaz-2016_v_krymu.shtml

Landing ship “Yamal” of the Black Sea Fleet of RF. Source: https://gostyam.livejournal.com/56252.html?thread=124860

Landing ship “Orsk” of the Black Sea Fleet of RF. Source: https://www.kchf.ru/ship/desant/orsk.htm

According to the results of the analysis of the Russian state media, it was found that during 2014-2019, about 89 military exercises, maneuvers and trainings were conducted at the “Opuk” military training area (detailed information - Annex 1). Most of the military exercises were conducted by the units of Black Sea Fleet of Russia. Nevertheless, other Russian military formations regularly took part in the maneuvers, notably: 4th army of the Aviation and Air-Defense Forces of the Southern military district; Military Space Defense Forces of the Southern military district; Novorossiysk Air-Assault Division; Kamyshin and Ulan-Ude separate Airborne assault brigades; Caspian Flotilla; Aviation Forces of the Western military district etc.

 

Each military exercise involved several hundreds or even thousands of soldiers, dozens of military vehicles, firing from automatic weapons and grenade launchers. The “Opuk” military range is most often used by occupiers for training of landing of naval infantry. All these actions literally destroy the rare flora and fauna of the Crimea. Nevertheless, the biggest threat is that much of the military maneuvers involved firing, bombing, launching of guided and uncontrolled missiles, which cause huge destruction of the nature reserve fund. During 2014-2019, there were a total of 89 cases of military exercises and maneuvers recorded:

- 27 cases of practical bombardments and launches of uncontrolled and guided missiles at a coastline, sea and air targets. Regularly involved were: Su-24MR reconnaissance aircraft; Su-24M and Su-34 frontal bombers; Su-30SM multirole combat aircrafts; Su-27SM3, Su-30M2, Su-27, Su-30, Mig-29 fighter aircrafts; Su-25SM and Su-25SM3 strike aircrafts; Be-12 amphibious aircraft; Mi-8, Ka-27, Ka-52, Mi-28H, Mi-35M, Ka-27PL and Mi-8AMTSH helicopters;

- 16 cases of artillery firing involving the following technique: “D-30”, “Msta-B”, “Hvozdyka”, “Nona 2-C9” and “Msta-C” howitzers; “Grad” multiple launch rocket systems; anti-ship missile complexes "Bastion”, "Ball”, "Coast”; anti-tank guided missile systems “Khrizantema”; artillery installations 2C9 "Nona-C”; anti-aircraft complex “Pancyr”; air defense complexes “Arrow”;

- 4 cases of practical firing using T-72B3 tanks;

- 18 cases of naval artillery fire at a shore and naval targets by the warships of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia: landing ships “Azov”, “Nikolai Filchenkov”, “Caesar Kunikov” and “Orsk”; guard ships “Black Forest” and “Ladny”; frigates “Admiral Essen”, “Admiral Grigorovich” and “Admiral Makarov”; small rocket ships “Mirage” and “Orekhovo-Zuevo”;

- 2 cases of launching “Kalibr” and "Kalibr-PL” cruise missiles by submarines “Rostov-na-Donu”, “Kolpino” and “Novorossiysk”;

- 2 cases of firing using mortars “Podnos” and “Sani”.

Conclusions

Starting from 2014, military training ground of the 810th Russian Black Sea Fleet Marine Brigade and facilities of the 31st Russian Black Sea Fleet Research Center (“Opuk” military range) were restored and actively used on the territory of the Opuk nature reserve. Military maneuvers and exercises involving artillery, rocket systems, aviation and warships are regularly conducted in close proximity to the particularly valuable nature reserves. One of the most threatening fact is that Russian servicemen arbitrarily use adjacent territory of the military ground, which does not belong to it, for military maneuvers. Such actions cause irreparable damage to the ecology and natural heritage of the Opuk Nature Reserve, mainly:

- projectiles used by the Russians, destroy the vegetation and heavily pollute the soil with sulfur, which in contact with water turns into sulfuric acid[22];

- bombardment affects the protected fauna, for instance, making impossible the nesting of rare and endangered birds;

- military maneuvers threaten the rare protected flora which accrues of 32 species;

- fields of rare wild tulips at the foot of Koncheckska mountain and on the area between the Koyashske and Uzunlar lakes can be irretrievably lost;

- lake water area of Uzunlar lake, used as a military training ground, is filled with traces of bombing and fragments of shells, which will cause permanent loss of therapeutic mud deposits if military exercises will continue[23];

- unique landscapes of the Opuk nature reserve can be destroyed under the pressure of Russian military;

- military exercises on the sea area of “Opuk” range threatens to preserve a state monument with a status of regional significance “Cliff-ship islands”.

The effects of Crimean Peninsula militarization on the nature and ecology cannot be fully appreciated until the occupation. And given the fact that some of the effects of military influence on the territory of the Opuk nature reserve have a long-term nature, it will be possible to make convinced conclusions about their consequences only in the uncertain future. Such an assessment only reinforces the conviction that Ukraine must make every effort to stop the destruction of the peninsula's Natural Reserve Fund and to require Russia to offset the negative effects of occupation policies on the environment. With Russia's increasing military activity on the peninsula, the endangered species of fauna and flora, as well as the unique landscapes of not only Opuk nature reserve, but other Crimean nature reserves, might be lost forever.

Annex 1. The list of Russian military exercises, maneuvers and trainings on the “Opuk” military range during 2014-2019 

 

Date

Description

1

12.12.2019

Military exercise of artillerists and combat drones.

https://flot2017.com/okkupanty-provodyat-ucheniya-artilleristov-i-raschetov-bpla/ 

2

11.12.2019

Frigate “Admiral Essen” of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia strikes coastal target with Kalibr cruise missiles.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/158676

3

09.12.2019

Anti-ship missile complexes "Bastion" and "Ball" of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted military exercise with rocket firing at a sea target.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/158556

4

19.11.2019

Divisions of anti-ship missile complexes "Bastion" and "Ball" of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia carried out march toward “Opuk” military range.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/157771

5

25.10.2019

Military exercise of marine aviation and air defense of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia with coastal targets bombardment; 7 military aircrafts (Su-30СМ, Su-27 і Su-24М) of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia and 12 ОFАB-250−270 bombs were involved.

https://eadaily.com/ru/news/2019/10/25/12-aviabomb-tipa-ofab-250270-sbrosili-v-krymu-su-24m-ucheniya

6

22.10.2019

Divisions of anti-ship missile complexes "Bastion" and "Ball" of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted electronic launches of missiles at a sea targets; more than 20 pieces of military vehicles and 100 soldiers were involved. https://www.blackseanews.net/read/156578 

7

18.10.2019

Military exercise of Russian Black Sea Fleet naval infantry with shooting from grenade launchers and BTR-82AM; 300 soldiers and 40 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/156456

8

15.10.2019

Units of Mi-35 helicopters of the Southern military district conducted military training with rocket firing at a ground targets

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/156280

9

09.10.2019

Kolpino submarine of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia fired with Kalibr cruise missiles against a coastal target of the “Opuk” military range.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/156111

10

16-27.09.2019

Bilateral brigade military exercise of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia; 3 000 soldiers, 12 warships, 300 pieces of military vehicles, 30 pieces of planes and helicopters were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/155663

11

26.09.2019

Military exercise of artillery formations of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia, including: Msta-B, D-30 howitzers, “Grad” multiple launch rocket systems and mortars "Podnos".

http://www.c-inform.info/news/id/79877

12

26.09.2019

Military exercise of aviation and air defense of the Sothern military district with coastal targets bombardment; 10 crews of Su-24 bombers and Su-25SM attack aircraft.

https://structure.mil.ru/structure/okruga/south/news/[email protected]

13

26.09.2019

Military exercise of artillery formations of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia.

https://structure.mil.ru/structure/okruga/south/news/[email protected]

14

21.09.2019

Brigade military exercise of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia; 3 000 soldiers, 12 warships, 300 pieces of military vehicles, 30 pieces of planes and helicopters; anti-ship missile complexes «Bastion», «Bal», «Bereg», howitzers «Gwozdika» were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

15

18.09.2019

Bilateral brigade military exercise of units of coast guard and naval infantry of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia; helicopters Mi-8 were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

16

06.09.2019

Aviation unit sof the 4th Army of the of Aviation and Air Defense Forces of Sothern military district conducted bombardment of the coastal targets; 10 crews of Su-24M front-line bombers and Su-30SM multirole combat aircrafts.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

17

05.09.2019

Tactical military exercise of the coast guard brigade of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia; more than 300 soldiers and 100 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/154741

18

30.08.2019

During bilateral command-staff exercise, 20 Mi-8AMTSH helicopters of the 4th army of the Aviation and Air Defense of Southern military district provided landing; moreover, more than 24 warships, 100 pieces of military vehicles, 30 Su-30SM multirole combat aircrafts, Ka-52, Ka-27 and Mi-8 helicopters, 2 000 soldiers were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/154508

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/154418

19

30.08.2019

Largescale military exercise of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia; more than 10 warships (e.g. frigates ‘Admiral Grigorovich’ and ‘Admiral Makarov’ frigates, small rocket ships ‘Mirage’, patrol ship ‘Dmitry Rogachev’, landing ships and minesweepers), around 20 pieces of aviation and 1 000 soldiers. Rocket launches, artillery firing, bombardment and landing on the coastline were conducted.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]  

20

30.08.2019

Largescale landing using 20 Mi-8AMTSh helicopters of the 4th army of the Aviation and Air Defense of Southern military district on the coastline.  

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

21

27.08.2019

Units of naval infantry of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted march toward ‘Opuk’ military range; artillery, aviation and warships were involved.

https://www.militarynews.ru/story.asp?rid=1&nid=515783&lang=RU

22

14.08.2019

Training battle between small rocket ship ‘Orechovo-Zuevo’ and coastal anti-ship missile complexes ‘Bastion’ with electronic rocket launches at a coastal and sea targets.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

23

08.08.2019

Marine engineering units of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted mining and demining of the coastline.

https://structure.mil.ru/structure/okruga/south/news/[email protected]

24

12.07.2019

During tactical military exercise of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia, artillery formations ‘Nona’ 2-C9 conducted bombardment at coastal targets; naval infantry conducted firing with small arms and grenade launching. 

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/152727 

25

12.07.2019

Tactical military exercise of the naval infantry of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia; more than 500 soldiers and 50 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

26

11.07.2019

Military exercise of the landing on the coastline; 20 IL-76 planes and more than 20 000 soldiers were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/152487

27

08.07.2019

300 marines of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia performed parachute jumping from MI-8 helicopters.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

28

20.06.2019

Marine aviation of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted bombardment of ground and sea targets; over 30 pieces of military vehicles were involved: Su-24 MR reconnaissance aircraft, Su-24M front-line bombers, Su-30SM multirole combat aircrafts, Be-12 amphibious aircraft, Mi-8 and Ka-27 helicopters.
https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

29

07.06.2019

Su-24M front-line bombers and Su-30SM multirole combat aircrafts conducted bombardment and uncontrolled missile launching.

https://structure.mil.ru/structure/okruga/south/news/[email protected]

30

09.04.2019

Tank and artillery units of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted long-range shooting; tanks T-72B2 and “Grad” multiple launch rocket systems were involved.

http://www.c-inform.info/news/id/75448

31

26.03.2019

Landing of soldiers and 30 pieces of military vehicles; naval artillery shooting from the landing ships ‘Caesar Kunikov’ and ‘Azov’.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/149828

32

22.03.2019

Artillery duels between 20 artillery formations of “Grad” multiple launch rocket systems and “Msta-s” howitzers.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]  

33

28.02.2019

Military exercise of the naval infantry of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia; more than 400 soldiers and 60 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

34

02.02.2019

Landing ship ‘Caesar Kunikov’ carried out an artillery firing at a coastline, air and sea targets.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

35

09.11.2018

Around 10 military aircrafts Su-24, Su-30 and Su-27 conducted bombardment of the ground and coastline targets; more than 30 aviation bombs and 50 uncontrolled missiles were involved.

https://rg.ru/2018/11/09/reg-ufo/video-shturmoviki-i-istrebiteli-nanesli-udar-po-nazemnym-celiam-v-krymu.html 

36

24.10.2018

3 Be-12 amphibious aircrafts conducted bombardment of ground targets.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/145342

37

12.10.2018

10 aviation regiments of the 4th army of Aviation and Air Defense Forces conducted large-scale military exercise with bombardment and uncontrolled missiles launching; Su-24M, Su-34 front-line bombers, Su-27SM3, Su-30M2, Su-25SM3 strike aircrafts and helicopters Ka-52, Mi-28H, Mi-35M were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/145127

38

09-10.10.2018

Bilateral brigade military exercise of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia with artillery (“Grad” multiple launch rocket systems) and tank (Т-72B3) shootings, landing on the coastline from ships ‘Orsk’ and ‘Azov’; more than 3 000 soldiers and 200 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

39

01.10.2018

 

 

Tactical brigade military exercise of the Black Sea Fleet of Russian with landing on the coastline.

https://function.mil.ru

40

28.09.2018

Engineering units of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted training on the organization of coast defense

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/144747

41

25.09.2018

12 Su-30 combat aircrafts of the 4th army of Aviation and Air Defense Forces of Southern military district fired air-to-air missiles

42

24.09.2018

Artillery units of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia carried out bombardment of ground and coastline targets; 200 pieces of military vehicles, particularly: “Grad” multiple launch rocket systems; “Msta-s” and “Nona 2-C9” howitzers; mortars “Podnos” and “Sani”; anti-tank guided missile systems “Khrizantema”.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

43

04-05.09.2018

Main stage of tactical military exercise with landing of soldiers and shooting; more than 700 soldiers and 9 pieces of military vehicles of Novorossiysk airborne regiment.

https://function.mil.ru/for_media/events/[email protected]

44

20.08.2018

Military aviation of a separate naval assault aviation regiment of Marine Aviation and Air-Defense Forces of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted bombardment; 10 crews of Su-24M front-line bombers and Su-30CM.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/143746

45

14.08.2018

Landing ship ‘Nikolay Filchenkov’ conducted artillery fire at a coastline targets.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

46

20.07.2018

Landing ship of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia ‘Azov’ fired missiles in the sea area of “Opuk” range.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/143050

47

14.07.2018

Marine aviation of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted bombardment with aviation bombs and uncontrolled missiles against ground targets; 10 crews of separate naval assault aviation regiment were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

48

08.07.2018

Landing ship ‘Nikolay Filchenkov’ conducted firing with naval artillery at a coastline targets.

https://function.mil.ru/function/mto/news/[email protected]

49

21.06.2018

Soldiers of Coast Guard Brigade of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted military exercise on the territory of “Opuk” range.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

50

08.06.2018

Aviation and Air-Defense Forces of Southern military district during tactical military exercise conducted bombardment of ground targets; around 100 pieces of tactical aviation were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/142007

51

05.06.2018

Assault aviation of the Aviation and Air-Defense Forces of Southern military district together with the Black Sea Fleeet of Russia conducted bombardment of ground targets; Su-25SM assault aircrafts were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]&_print=true

52

16.04.2018

Military exercise of the artillery units of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia with the use of military drones.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/140649

53

12.04.2018

Rocket and landing ships conducted military training of landing on the coastline; warships fired at coastline targets with naval artillery.

https://function.mil.ru/news_

54

23.03.2018

Anti-aircraft complexes “Pancyr” of Aviation and Air-Defense Forces of Southern military district conducted artillery fire with guided missiles.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]  

55

20.03.2018

Landing ships ‘Nikolay Filchenkov’ and ‘Orsk’ of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia provided landing of the soldiers on the coastline; 300 soldiers and 30 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

56

13.03.2018

Tactical military exercise of the Novorossiysk Air-Assault Division; more than 300 soldiers and 60 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

57

07.03.2018

Landing ship ‘Caesar Kunikov’ carried out an artillery firing at a coastline targets.

https://topwar.ru/137434-bdk-cezar-kunikov-vypolnil-artilleriyskie-strelby-na-morskom-desantnom-poligone-opuk.html

58

20.02.2018

Aircrafts of the Aviation and Air-Defense Forces of Southern military district conducted bombardment on the “Opuk” military range; 10 crews of Su-27 and Su-30 fighter aircrafts.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

59

25.01.2018

Naval infantry of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia practiced counterintelligence skills; more than 700 marines and 100 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/organizations/[email protected]&_print=true

60

20.01.2018

Marine aviation of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted bombardment of ground targets with uncontrolled and guided missiles; Su-24 front-line bombers and Su-30 assault aircraft were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected] 

61

20.12.2017

Landing ships ‘Orsk’ and ‘Yamal’ of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia fired with naval artillery at a ground, air and sea targets.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

62

25.10.2017

Military exercise of naval infantry of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

63

06.10.2017

Submarines ‘Rostov-na-Donu’ and ‘Novorossiysk’ of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia fired cruise missiles ‘Kalibr’ and ‘Kalibr-PL’ at sea targets.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/135323

64

27.09.2017

Artillery formations of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia fired at ground and coastline targets; “Msta-B” and “D-30” howitzers, “Grad” multiple launch rocket systems and mortars “Podnos” were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

65

24.09.2017

Coast guard brigade of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia performed artillery fire at a ground targets; more than 100 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

66

20.09.2017

Artillery regiment of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia practiced defense of the coastline; more than 50 pieces of the military vehicles (e.g. “Grad” multiple launch rocket systems and air defense complexes “Arrow”) were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

67

07.09.2017

Marine aviation of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia and aircrafts of the Military Space and Air Defense Forces of the Southern military district conducted bombardment and launch of missiles; Mi-8, Ka-27PL helicopters; An-26 and Be-12 planes were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/134269 

68

30.08.2017

Guard ship ‘Pytlivy‘ of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted artillery fire at coastline targets.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

69

22.08.2017

Landing ship ‘Azov’ of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted artillery fire at coastline, air and sea targets.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/133747

70

17.08.2017

Landing ship ‘Nikolay Filchenkov’ conducted artillery fire at a coastline targets.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/133747

71

08.06.2017

Landing ship ‘Nikolay Filchenkov’ conducted artillery fire at a coastline targets.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

72

08.06.2017

Units of naval infantry of the Caspian Flotilla conducted tactical military exercise.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

73

19.05.2017

Landing ships ‘Nikolay Filchenkov’ and ‘Azov’ conducted artillery fire at a coastline targets.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

74

20.04.2017

During command-and-staff military exercise of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia artillery fire from “Grad” multiple launch rocket systems and howitzers was conducted.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/129377

75

02.04.2017

Military exercise of the artillery units and naval infantry of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia; ‘D-30’, ‘Nona’ howitzers and “Grad” multiple launch rocket systems were involbed.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

76

27.03.2017

Artillery units of the black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted artillery fire at ground targets; 700 soldiers and 100 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/128432

77

20-21.03.2017

Large-scale military exercise with participation of Kamyshin and Ulan-Ude separate Airborne assault brigades, Novorossiysk Air-Assault Division, Black Sea Fleet of Russia and 4th army of Aviation and Air-Defense Forces of Southern military district. 2 500 marines, 600 pieces of military vehicles and landing ship ‘Caesar Kunikov’ were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/128137

78

7-10.09.2016

Final stage of strategic command-and-staff military exercise “Caucasus-2016”; all kinds and types of troops are involved. For instance, Aviation Forces of the Western military district conducted bombardment with P-50T aviation bombs.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

79

June

2016

Large-scale tactical military exercise of the Aviation Forces of Southern military district; more than 2 500 soldiers and helicopters were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/117433

80

28.04.2016

Assault aviation regiment of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted aviation fire with uncontrolled rockets at coastline targets; Su-30SM multirole combat aircrafts and front-line bombers Su-24M were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

81

22.04.2016

Military exercise of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia with naval artillery fire at coastline targets; 15 warships were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/115267

82

18.04.2016

Marine aviation of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted military exercise with air-to-air rockets launching; Mi-8, Ka-27 helicopters and front-line bombers Su-24M were involved.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/115040

83

15.04.2016

Military exercise with artillery and rocket fire at coastline targets; 800 soldiers and 200 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

84

29.10.2015

Marine aviation of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted bombardment of coastline targets with aviation bombs and uncontrolled missiles; Su-24MR and Su-24M front-line bombers, Su-30SM multirole combat aircrafts, Ka-27, Ka-27PS helicopters and amphibious aircrafts Be-12 were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

85

07.09.2015

During military exercise of Air-Defense Forces of Black Sea Fleet of Russia, Su-30SM multirole combat aircrafts and Su-24M front-line bombers conducted bombardment of ground targets.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/104845

86

09.06.2015

During tactical military exercise 10 Mi-28N and Mi-35M helicopters conducted rocket fire at ground targets; more than 50 rockets were used.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/100718

87

17.04.2015

Landing ships ‘Nikolay Filchenkov’ and ‘Caesar Kunikov’ conducted artillery fire at a coastline targets.

https://www.blackseanews.net/read/98425

88

24.01.2015

Marine aviation of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia conducted bombardment of coastline targets with aviation bombs and uncontrolled missiles; Su-24 front-line bombers, amphibious aircrafts Be-12 and Ka-27 helicopters were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/country/[email protected]

89

27.08.-27.10.2014

Two-months military exercise of the naval infantry brigade of the Black Sea Fleet of Russia; 600 soldiers and 150 pieces of military vehicles were involved.

https://function.mil.ru/news_page/person/[email protected]