"The Gray Zone". Crimea: Four Years of Occupation

The annual report by Maidan of Foreign Affairs, BlackSeaNews and the Black Sea Institute of Strategic Studies on four years of occupation of Crimea by Russia.


1. B. Yaremenko: We Will Return Crimea

2. The "Island of Crimea" 9
2.1. The RF Logistic Objective in Crimea and the Actions of Ukraine 9
2.2. The Maritime Transport 11
2.3. The Civil Aviation 17
2.4. The Crimean Railway 25
2.5. The Energy Supply 28
2.6. The Gas Supply 31

2.7. The Kerch Bridge

3. The Socio-Economic Situation in the Occupied Crimea 43
3.1. Back in the USSR 43
3.2. The Crimea Federal Program 44
3.3. The "Gray Zone" Banking 46
3.4. The Occupied Tourism 47
3.5. The Small and Medium Business 50
3.6. The Export and Import 51
3.7. The Prices, Salaries and Pensions 52

3.8. The Crimean Budget

4. The Change of Course. The Military Development of Crimea 57
4.1. The "Reversal" Restructuring of the Crimean Economy 57
4.2. The Chronicle of the Crimean Occupation 58
4.3. The Build-Up of the Crimea Missile Potential 61
4.4. The Restoration of the Crimea Nuclear Infrastructure 63
4.5. The Occupied Crimea in the Syrian War 64
4.6. The Occupied Crimea and the Change of the Region’s Military Balance 65
4.7. The Size and Composition of the Military Grouping in Crimea 67
4.8. The Effect of Sanctions on the Black Sea Fleet 71
4.9. The Militarization as a Factor of the Industrial Growth 71
4.10. The Crimean "Trophy Economy" 74

4.11. Military Base and the Replacement of the Peninsula’s Population

5. The NATO Black Sea Response to the Occupation and Military Development of Crimea 79
5.1. The NATO Black Sea Dilemma 79
5.2. The Black Sea History of the NATO Naval Forces 80
5.3. The NATO Naval Operations in the Black Sea in 2014-2017 81

5.4. The Current Naval Trends and Forecasts


6. The Strategy of the Crimea De-occupation: an Upgrade


7. Databases and Documents

7.1. The 2014-2017 Black List of the Infringing Ships 93
7.2. NATO Ship Entries into the Black Sea in 2013-2017 153




The monitoring of the violations of the international sanctions against Russia and the legal regime of the temporarily occupied territory of Crimea is supported by the European Program Initiative of the Renaissance International Foundation since November 2016.
The position of Renaissance International Foundation may not reflect the opinion of the authors.


The Crimean Library section on the blackseanews.net website has been created with the support of the European Program of the International Renaissance Foundation. The views of the authors do not necessarily reflect the position of the International Renaissance Foundation  



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